It is set in central Europe during the 20th century and examines a vast array of characters, ranging from generals to martyrs, officers to poets, traitors to artists and musicians. It deals with the moral decisions made by people in the most testing of times and offers a perspective on human actions during wartime. Vollmann makes use of many historical figures as characters including composer Dmitri Shostakovich, artist Käthe Kollwitz, film director Roman Karmen, poet Anna Akhmatova, SS officer Kurt Gerstein, as well as German general Friedrich Paulus and Soviet general Andrey Vlasov.
In an afterword, Vollmann admits that, while the book is heavily researched and mostly features real people, the work should be regarded as fiction. He calls it "a series of parables about famous, infamous and anonymous European moral actors at moments of decision." Though largely true to history, a number of anecdotes or details are created by the author, such as the "imaginary love triangle" between Shostakovich, Roman Karmen, and Elena Konstantinovskaya.
Elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were Roman Catholicism and Latin. Eastern Europe, which remained Eastern Orthodox Christian, was the area of Byzantine cultural influence; after the schism (1054), it developed cultural unity and resistance to the Western world (Catholic and Protestant) within the framework of Slavonic language and the Cyrillic alphabet.
The primary function of a central bank is to control the nation's money supply (monetary policy), through active duties such as managing interest rates, setting the reserve requirement, and acting as a lender of last resort to the banking sector during times of bank insolvency or financial crisis. Central banks usually also have supervisory powers, intended to prevent bank runs and to reduce the risk that commercial banks and other financial institutions engage in reckless or fraudulent behavior. Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally designed to be independent from political interference. Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies usually exists.
Flush with international donations and loans for rebuilding the country, along with money from Lebanon’s millions-strong diaspora, the country’s central bank set the exchange rate of the lira to the dollar at 1,500 to 1, rather than using a floating exchange rate, as is the case in most countries around the world.
Hungary’s current high level of inflation is temporary and, as long as the central bank makes full use of the tools at its disposal, consumer prices may return to around 3 percent next year, Finance MinisterMihály Varga said on Monday ... “I agree with the central bank that higher inflation is dangerous,” he said.
If I was managing a big public fund or just a big private investor, the Federal Reserve, Treasury, and every other central bank in the world would NEVER be allowed to talk to me. Even when I would go to meetings in Europe, I was not allowed to bring a British staff member as he ...
"It is a fatal signal that the central banks in the United States and Europe have achieved new margins by reformulating their interest rate strategies, holding on to zero and negative interest rates for longer and living with higher inflation rates," Steiger added.Reporting by Joseph Nasr Editing by Douglas Busvine and David Holmes.
Billions more from Europe has been conditioned on an audit of the opaque central bank, which has been critical to the movement of Lebanon’s wealth ... This country’s central bank reserves have dipped below mandatory requirements, meaning an imminent end to subsidies in place to safeguard even the middle classes.
The company will be able to build more banking relationships and payment rail connections across Europe as a result of its registration with the DutchCentralBank. Since 2018, Okcoin has provided crypto-to-crypto trading to Dutch customers and has been registered as a crypto service provider with the Dutch Central Bank since 2020.
Guardian business email sign-up. Eurostat also said that higher energy prices caused eurozone inflation to rise from 1.9% in June to 2.2% in July – the highest annual rate since October 2018 and slightly above the EuropeanCentralBank’s 2% target rate. Andrew Kenningham, the chief Europe economist at the consultancy Capital Economics, said ... .
The scale and severity of this summer's floods have led to comparisons with events that took place in the summer of 2002, when a week of sustained rain caused several major rivers in central Europe to burst their banks ... Europe has warmed by 1�C over the past century ... CAN EUROPE ACT TO PREVENT FURTHER DEVASTATION?.
The scale and severity of this summer's floods have led to comparisons with events that took place in the summer of 2002, when a week of sustained rain caused several major rivers in central Europe to burst their banks ... Europe has warmed by 1C over the past century ... CAN EUROPE ACT TO PREVENT FURTHER DEVASTATION?.
The EuropeanCentralBank confirmed its expansive monetary policy this week, in accordance with its recently reviewed inflation target and in a context of growing Covid 19 contagions that threaten recovery ... The central bank has maintained rates near zero since the pandemic began ...
This will compel their respective central banks to begin normalising the extremely loose monetary policies earlier than anticipated ...Europe’s recovery had begun to inch up, but members of the EuropeanCentralBank have begun to push back on market expectations of early tapering.
The central bank plans to provide funds at a zero interest rate for investments and loans by private financial institutions that are deemed as “efforts to address climate change.” ... Similar arguments have been made internationally, and central banks in Europe are taking a positive stance toward climate change initiatives.
Three years after the world learnt of Danske Bank’s central role in one of Europe’s biggest money-laundering scandals, the cost of that stunning failure of governance is still palpable ... The sector, which has absorbed sub-zero central bank rates since 2012, didn’t apply the policy to regular customers until 2019.